Carbon dioxide emissions kill coral reefs and kelp forests, as heat waves and ocean acidification damage marine ecosystems, scientists warn.
In the scientific reports of researchers report that three centuries of industrial development have already had a significant impact on our seas.
But if CO 2 continues to rise Predictably, the coming decades and the lowering of the pH of the ocean will have even greater and potentially catastrophic consequences.
Their predictions follow a comprehensive study of the effects of recently discovered volcanic CO 2 Seepage off Shikine Island, Japan (1
Lead author Sylvain Agostini, associate professor at Tsukuba University Shimoda Marine Research Center said: "These CO 2 infiltrations are an important window into the future. In southern Japan, there was mass death of coral last year, but many people Therefore, it is extremely worrying to see that tropical corals are so susceptible to ocean acidification as it will prevent them from expanding further north to escape the damage of water that is too hot for them is. "
The research was led by scientists from the University of Tsukuba in Japan, the University of Plymouth in the UK, and the University of Palermo in Italy.
Teams of SCUBA divers who conducted investigations on underwater CO participated  gradients formed by volcanic seepage and demonstrated the response of fauna and flora to the acidification of seawater.
They found that some plant species benefited from changing conditions, but smaller weeds and algae were more likely to be seabed, suffocation of coral, and reduction of marine biodiversity.
These species and some smaller marine animals thrive because they are more tolerant of exposure to rising CO content 2 .
Jason Hall-Spencer, Professor of Marine Biology at the University of Plymouth, said: "Our research location is like a time machine." In areas with pre-industrial CO levels 2 the coast has an impressive amount of impoverished c Organisms such as coral and oysters, however, have found significantly fewer corals and other calcified habitats in areas of intermediate CO content in the current ocean surface 2 showing the extensive damage caused by humans due to CO 2 emissions were caused in the last 300 years, and if we can not reduce CO2 emissions, we will undoubtedly see a sharp deterioration of coastal systems worldwide. "
Professor Kazuo Inaba, former director of the Shimoda Marine Research Center , added: "Local fishermen are curious how acidification of the oceans will affect their livelihoods Some currents flowing past Japan bring water with naturally low CO content 2 and fish benefit from the numerous calcified habitats around our islands. If we are able to meet the objectives of the Paris Convention on Emissions, we should be able to limit further damage to kelp forests, coral reefs and all marine ecosystems. "
Internal control helps corals to acidify
Sylvain Agostini et al., Ocean acidification promotes community shifts to simplified non-calcified habitats in a subtropical-tempered transition zone, Scientific Reports (2018). DOI: 10.1038 / s41598-018-29251-7