Although women achieve higher university degrees than men, research shows that more and more women, especially colored women, are in low-paid jobs. According to the National Women's Law Center, women account for 17 percent of total employment, accounting for 33 percent of the fastest-growing low-paid jobs such as retail, fast-food, personal care and home-based nursing. This means that colored women are over-represented in jobs that pay the federal minimum wage of only $ 7.2 per hour.
The difference is even greater for African-American women, whose share of the fastest-growing low-wage jobs is 2.6 times their share of the total workforce.
"In general, there are things companies can do and governments can do, such as raising minimum wages and improving discrimination policies," says Gould.
In advertising for job opportunities, studies find that white applicants receive 36 percent more recalls than equally qualified African Americans and 24 percent more recalls than Latinos. A NPR survey found that one-third of Native Americans claim to be discriminated against in the workplace when it comes to finding work, receiving promotion, or receiving equal pay.
Lisa Crooms-Robinson, a professor of law and Associate Dean for academic affairs at Howard University, says that much of this discrimination and unfair treatment may be associated with colored women who are excluded from leadership and decision-making.
At leading technology companies such as Apple, Google, Pinterest, and Lyft, women in color account for less than 1