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What are the 10 stages of genocide? | news

July 11 marked the 24th anniversary of the genocide in Srebrenica, the worst atrocity on European soil since the Holocaust.

In July 1995, Serbian troops systematically killed more than 8,000 Bosniak Muslim men and boys in the so-called UN-protected enclave in Srebrenica, Bosnia.

But what led to the massacre?

In the 1990s, the American Gregory H. Stanton examined the stages of genocide that eventually became his "10 stages of genocide." Theory.

Genocide is not committed by a small group of individuals, but a large number of people and the state all contribute to the genocide.

At any stage, preventive measures can prevent the situation from deteriorating further, Stanton noted. [1

9659004] The Bosnian-Australian anthropologist Hariz Halilovic later added an eleventh step to Bosnia's case – "Trumphalism".

Thus, Stanton's ten stages – and Halilovic's eleventh – refer to the srebrenic agony:

St 1, 2, 3 years: Classification, Symbolization and Discrimination

The idea of ​​a Greater Serbia (including Bosnia, Kosovo, Croatia , Montenegro and other neighboring countries) dates back to the 19th century and was revived after the war Death of the Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito in 1980.

With the collapse of the communist bloc, Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic and the Serb nationalists saw a chance to mobilize the masses for the establishment of a homogeneous Serbian state.

In Milosevic's famous 1989, he spoke in Belgrade in front of a crowd and presented himself as the savior of Serbia and Europe. It enforced the term "we [Serbs] against them".

Bosniaks were usually called Turks, Balije (a bow for a Bosnian Muslim) and were branded as terrorists and Islamic "extremists".

Stage 4: Dehumanization [19659010] Many Serbs dehumanized Bosniaks and regarded them only as Muslims who posed a threat to the Serbian hegemonist project.

"To mobilize domestic public opinion against Muslims and to justify future actions against them in the eyes of Muslims Westernly, the Serb leadership needed a picture of Islam as a totalitarian, inherently violent and culturally alienated system on European soil." , writes Fikret Karcic, a professor at the University of Sarajevo, in his treatise "Distorted Images of Islam: the Case of Former Yugoslavia."

"Such a distorted image had been delivered by some influential Serbian Orientalists, the Orthodox Church and some historians."

Phase 5: Organization

A plan to destroy Bosnia and "completely eradicate" s Muslim people "was already established in the 1980s by the Yugoslav People's Army's General Staff, said Vladimir Srebrov, a politician representing the SDS party co-founded with the convicted Bosnian Serb war criminal Radovan Karadzic.

Known As the Famous According to the RAM plan, Bosnia should be broken down into a larger Serbia and a larger Croatia.

In the plan, the officers explained how artillery, ammunition and military equipment were stored in strategic locations in Croatia and Bosnia.

A secret police was planned to arm and train local Serbs to build police and paramilitary units in Bosnia Terror and panic among the Bosniak population would be triggered by rape of women, minors and even children's opaganda to dehumanize the victims and to push the opposition to the war to the margins.

In one case, when Serb forces besieged Sarajevo, the state-run Belgrade television broadcast a false story to incite hatred, including the statement: "Muslim extremists have come to torture people in the most appalling way in the world Last night they fed the Serbian children the lion in the city's zoo. "

This was reported in the evening news and watched by millions of viewers.

Phase 7: Preparation

Organized from Belgrade, Serbia. Weapons were distributed in 1990 and 1991 in Bosnia by truck to the Serbian population.

"Weapons and military equipment were even flown in by military helicopters to Serbian military officers, which means that almost no Serbian house ended up without an automatic weapon," reads a UN report from 1994.

"The pretext for the arms deliveries and the rearmament was that this for the defense against "the enemies of the people – the Muslim extremists.

Stage 8: Persecution

Throughout Bosnia, influential intellectual Bosniaks were often among the first to be listed in death lists.

When Serb troops arrived in every city, they killed non-Serbs, often after Torture: Bosniak possession confiscated.

Bosnian rape banned 50,000 Bosnian and Croat women, girls and small children from 1992 to 1995. [19659036] War crimes in Bosnia “/>

A woman walks through the cemetery in Potocari, Bosnia and Herzegovina, March 20, 2019 [Marko Drobnjakovic/AP]

In Prijedor, a city in western Bosnia, Bosniaks had to wear white armbands to be clearly identified and put white flags on their doors.

Across the country, 200,000 people were sent to concentration camps deported, where they were tortured, starved and killed.

Others who lived under siege, such as in Sarajevo and Mostar, starved to death they were attacked by sniper and heavy grenades. [19659004] Srebrenica, known as the largest prison camp in the world, was besieged for three years before being subordinated to the Bosnian Serb forces in July 1995.

Serbian troops separated boys and men between the ages of 12 and 77 from the rest of the US On July 11 at 16:15, General Ratko Mladic (now a convicted war criminal) invaded Serbian forces in Srebrenica and demanded the city for Bosnian Serbs. Mladic strolled through the streets with rolled-up television cameras announcing "Avenging the Turks."

Ratko Mladic was sentenced to life imprisonment for genocide.

Panicked inhabitants of the enclave fled to the base of the Dutch UN battalion only to find that the 400 lightly armed peacekeepers could not defend them. Serbian troops had inherited much larger resources from the former Yugoslav army, the fourth largest in the world at the time.

On this day, thousands of Bosniak men begin to flee through the forest, forming a pillar and walking about 100 km in an attempt to reach free territory controlled by the Bosnian army.

The trip was called a death march when it was attacked, shot at and attacked by Serbian troops. Less than a quarter of them survived.

More than 8,000 Bosniaks were killed within six days. Women and small children were deported.

  Mass grave exhumation at Cerska SREBRENICA, BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA - JULY 1996: Mass grave exhumation at Cerska, a year ago the Bosnian Serb army, led by General Ratko Mladic,

Authorities are standing by a mass grave exhumation site near Srebrenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina [File: Laurent Van der Stockt/ Getty Images]

Level 10: Denial

In an attempt to disguise the killings, Serbian troops carried the bodies with bulldozers and trucks and buried them in numerous places. remains shattered and smashed.

Human bones can be found up to 20 km apart, making it difficult for families to properly bury their loved ones.

According to a poll by Al Jazeera Balkans from 2018, 66 percent of Serbs in the Republika Srpska deny the genocide.

The denial of genocide is widespread in academic and political circles in Republika Srpska and in Serbia.

The genocide is vehemently denied by politicians like Milorad Dodik. The current chairman and Serbian member of the tripartite presidency of Bosnia and the Serbian Prime Minister Ana Brnabic.

"[Denial] is one of the safest indicators of more genocidal massacres," wrote Stanton.

  Pro-Mladic supporters demonstrate in Belgrade, BELGRADE, SERBIA - MAY 29: Supporters of the Ratko-Mladic flag wave with picture and reading in Serbian "Serbian hero" during a rally organized

Mladic supporters demonstrate in Belgrade against Ratko Mladic's arrest [Srdjan Stevanovic/Getty Images]

Level 11: Triumph

Condemned war criminals are today honored and honored as war hero.

According to the 2018 poll, 74 percent of Serbs in the Republika Srpska consider the Bosnian Serb war criminal Radovan Karadzic guilty of genocide and war crimes a hero.

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