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When will black holes become unstable?




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The simulated decay of a black hole not only causes radiation but also the decay of the central mass, which keeps most objects stable static objects, but change over time. EU Communicate Science

There are many ways to create the black holes that we know in the universe, from supernovae with nuclear collapse to the fusion of neutron stars to the direct Collapse of enormous amounts of matter: At the smallest end we know black holes, which are perhaps only 2.5 to 3 times the mass of our Sun, while at the largest end supermassive holes with more than 1

0 billion solar masses are centers of galaxies But how is that and how stable are black holes of different masses? Nyccolas Emanuel wants to know how he asks:

Is there a critical size? ße for the stability of black holes? [A] 10 12 kg [black hole] is already stable for a few billion lion years. However, a [black hole] in the range of 10 5 kg could explode in a second, so definitely not stable … I think there is a critical mass for a [black hole] where the flow of recovered matter becomes equal to the Hawking evaporation?

There is a lot going on here, so we pack everything.

Black holes devour everything they encounter. Although this is a great way to grow black holes, Hawking radiation also causes black holes to lose mass. Deriving when one defeats the other is not a trivial task. X-ray: NASA / CXC / UNH / D.Lin et al., Optical: CFHT, Illustration: NASA / CXC / M.Weiss

The first thing to start is the stability of a black hole. For any other object in the universe, whether astrophysical or otherwise, there are forces that hold it against anything the universe could do to rend it. A hydrogen atom is a tough-held structure; A single ultraviolet photon can destroy it by ionizing its electron. An atomic nucleus needs a much more energetic particle to push it apart, like a cosmic ray, an accelerated proton, or a gamma-ray photon.

With larger structures like planets, stars or even galaxies, however, the gravitational forces holding you together is enormous. Normally, either an uncontrollable fusion reaction or an unbelievably strong external attraction – such as a passing star, a black hole, or a galaxy – is needed to break up such a megastructure.

The NGC 3561A and NGC 3561B have collided and manufactured giant star-tails, feathers and even "ejecta" that condense into tiny "new" galaxies. Hot young stars shine blue, where a rejuvenated star formation takes place. Forces, like those between galaxies, can tear stars, planets or even whole galaxies. Black holes remain. Adam Block / Mount Lemmon SkyCenter / University of Arizona

However, black holes are fundamentally different. Instead of distributing its mass over a volume, it is compressed into a singularity. For a non-rotating black hole, this is just a single, zero-dimensional point. (For rotating, it's not much better: an infinitely thin, one-dimensional ring.)

In addition, all the mass and energy content of a black hole is contained within an event horizon. Black holes are the only objects in the universe that contain an event horizon: a boundary where, if you sink into it, you can not escape. No acceleration, and therefore no force, no matter how strong, will ever be able to pull matter, mass, or energy out of the event horizon out into the Universe beyond.

The artist's impression of the active galactic core. The supermassive black hole in the center of the accretion disk sends a narrow, high-energy matter beam perpendicular to the disk into space. A blazar some 4 billion light years away is the source of many of the highest energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Only matter from outside the black hole can leave the black hole. Matter from the event horizon can ever escape. DESY, Science Communication Lab

This may mean that black holes, if you make a hole by any means, only grow and can never be destroyed. In fact, they are growing, and relentlessly. We observe all kinds of phenomena in the universe, such as:

  • quasars,
  • blazars,
  • active galactic nuclei,
  • microquasars,
  • stars that emit no light of any kind,
  • and flaring, X-ray and radio emissions from galactic centers

which are believed to be all driven through black holes. By counting on their masses, we can know the physical sizes of their event horizons. Everything that collides with it, penetrates or even grazes, will inevitably fall into the interior. And by conserving energy, it must inevitably increase the mass of the black hole.

An illustration of an active black hole that accumulates matter and accelerates part of it outward in two perpendicular rays is an excellent descriptor of how quasars work. Matter that falls into a black hole becomes a black growth for any further growth Hole in mass and size be responsible. Mark A. Garlick

This is a process that, on average, occurs for every black hole in the universe today. Material from other stars, cosmic dust, interstellar matter, gas clouds, or even the radiation and neutrinos left over from the Big Bang, can help. Intervening dark matter collides with the black hole and also increases its mass. All in all, black holes grow depending on the surrounding matter and energy density. the monster in the center of our Milky Way grows every 3,000 years by about one solar mass; The black hole at the center of the sombrero galaxy grows around one solar mass every two decades.

The bigger and heavier your black hole is, the faster it grows, depending on the other material it encounters. Over time, the growth rate will decline, but with a universe that is only 13.8 billion years old, they continue to grow amazingly.

When the horizons of an event are real, a star falling into a black hole would simply be swallowed up and leave no trace of encounter. This process, in which black holes grow because matter collides with their event horizon, can not be prevented. Mark A. Garlick / CfA

On the other hand, black holes do not only grow over time. There is also a process by which they evaporate: Hawking radiation. This was the subject of Ask Ethan's last week, due to the fact that the space near the event horizon of a black hole is heavily curved, but farther away. If you are far away as an observer, a significant amount of radiation will be emitted from the curved area near the event horizon, because the quantum vacuum will have different properties in different curved spatial areas. The end result is that black holes in all directions around it are thermal black body radiation (usually in the form of photons) that emit holes over a volume of space that usually includes about ten black-hole radii of the black's location. And maybe it is a bit unintentional, the weaker the black hole is, the faster it evaporates.

The event horizon of a black hole is a sphere or sphere from which nothing, not even the light, can escape. Outside the event horizon, however, it is predicted that the black hole will emit radiation. Hawking's 1974 work was the first to demonstrate this, and it was arguably his greatest scientific achievement. NASA; Jörn Wilms (Tübingen) et al. ESA

Hawking radiation is an unbelievably slow process in which a black hole in the mass of our Sun would take 10 64 years to evaporate. that in the center of the Milky Way would require 10 87 years, and the most massive in the universe could last up to 10 100 years . In general, a simple formula that allows you to calculate the evaporation time for a black hole is the timescale for our sun and multiplied by:

(mass of the black hole / mass of the sun) 3 [19659007] means that a black hole of Earth's mass would survive 10 47 years; The mass of the Great Pyramid in Giza (~ 6 million tons) would last for about a thousand years. the mass of the Empire State Building would take about a month; the mass of an average person would take just under a picosecond. As your mass decreases, you evaporate faster.

The decay of a black hole by Hawking radiation should produce observable photon signatures over the lifetime. However, the evaporation rate and energy of Hawking radiation mean that there are explicit predictions at the final stage for the particles and antiparticles that are unique. A black hole of human mass would evaporate in just a picosecond. ortega-pictures / pixabay

In everything we know, the universe could contain black holes with an extremely wide range of masses. If it were born with light ones – anything under a billion tons – they would all have gone by today. There are no signs of black holes being heavier than those until they reach the holes formed by neutron neutron star fusions, which theoretically occur at about 2.5 solar masses. In addition, X-ray studies indicate the presence of black holes in the range of ~ 10-20 solar masses; LIGO showed us black holes between 8 and about 62 solar masses. and astronomy studies reveal the supermassive black holes found throughout the universe.

There are a variety of black holes that we know, but also a variety of studies that exclude black holes, which make up much of the dark matter of a large variety of regimes.

Dark matter limitations from primordial black holes. There is an overwhelming body of evidence that suggests that in the early Universe there is not a large population of black holes that make up our dark matter. 1 by Fabio Capela, Maxim Pshirkov, and Peter Tinyakov (2013), http://arxiv.org/pdf/1301.4984v3.pdf[19659002*HarewholesaleholesaltheirexistenceindividualindividualsimportantnessRatealshawking-Radiationeffectsthatleaveofthemassoftheyearlashwithanearearweightprojectsecondsof10 -28 Joules Energy. Considering that:

  • Even a single photon from the Cosmic Microwave Background has about one million times this energy,
  • there are about 411 such photons (left over from the Big Bang) per cubic centimeter of space
  • and you are moving at the speed of light, which means that about ten trillion photons per second collide with every square inch of an object,

even an isolated black hole in the depths of the intergalactic space would have to wait until the end The Universe was about 10 years old (19459016) 20 years old – more than a billion times younger than its present age – before the growth of the black hole falls below the rate of Hawking radiation. The nucleus of a large number of galaxies shows signs of a supermassive black hole in both infrared and X-ray observations.

The nucleus of the galaxy NGC 4261 is like that. If the matter falls into it, the black hole continues to grow. NASA / Hubble and ESA

But let's play the game. Suppose you lived in intergalactic space, away from all normal matter and dark matter, away from all cosmic rays and star beams and neutrinos, and only had the photons left over from the Big Bang to fight with. How big should your black hole be to balance the Hawking radiation (vaporization) and the photon absorption through your black hole (growth)?

The answer comes to about 10 23 kg or about the mass of the planet Mercury. If it were a black hole, mercury would have a diameter of about half a millimeter and would radiate about 100 trillion times as fast as a black hole with a solar mass. In today's universe, this is the mass that a black hole needs to absorb as much cosmic microwave background radiation as it would emit in Hawking radiation.

When a black hole shrinks in mass and radius, the Hawking radiation goes out, temperature and power get bigger and bigger. However, when the Hawking radiation rate exceeds the growth rate, no stars are burned in our cosmos. NASA

For a realistic black hole, you can not isolate it from the rest of the matter in the universe. Black holes, though ejected from galaxies, fly through the intergalactic medium, meeting cosmic rays, starlight, neutrinos, dark matter, and all sorts of other massive and massless particles. The cosmic microwave background is unavoidable, no matter where you are. When you are a black hole, you are constantly absorbing matter and energy, thereby growing in mass and size. Yes, they also emit energy in the form of Hawking radiation, but for all the black holes that really exist in our universe, it will take at least 100 quintillion years for the growth rate to fall below the radiation rate and much, much longer for it to finally volatilize.

Black holes eventually become unstable and disappear into nothing but radiation, but if we can not make a very low-mass hole, there will be nothing else in the universe


Send your Ask Ethan questions to gmail dot com!

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The simulated decay of a black hole not only leads to the emission of radiation, but also to the decay of the central orbiting mass that keeps most objects stable. Black holes are not static objects, but change over time Time Communicate Science of the EU

There are many ways to make the black holes that we know in the universe, from nuclear collapse supernovae to merging neutron stars to the direct collapse of enormous amounts of matter at the smallest end we know black holes which can only be 2.5 to 3 times the mass of our Sun, while supermassive holes with more than 10 billion solar masses are at the very end in the centers of galaxies, but is that how it is and how stable are black holes This is what Nyccolas Emanuel wants to know when he asks:

Is there a critical size for stability? on black holes? [A] 10 12 kg [black hole] has been stable for several billion years. However, a [black hole] in the range of 10 5 kg could explode in a second, so definitely not stable … I think there is a critical mass for a [black hole] where the flow of recovered matter becomes equal to the Hawking evaporation?

There is a lot going on here, so we pack everything.

Black holes devour everything they encounter. Although this is a great way to grow black holes, Hawking radiation also causes black holes to lose mass. Deriving when one defeats the other is not a trivial task. X-ray: NASA / CXC / UNH / D.Lin et al., Optical: CFHT, Illustration: NASA / CXC / M.Weiss

The first thing At the beginning is the stability of a black hole. For any other object in the universe, whether astrophysical or otherwise, there are forces that hold it against anything the universe could do to rend it. A hydrogen atom is a tough-held structure; A single ultraviolet photon can destroy it by ionizing its electron. An atomic nucleus needs a much more energetic particle to push it apart, like a cosmic ray, an accelerated proton, or a gamma-ray photon.

With larger structures like planets, stars or even galaxies, however, the gravitational forces holding you together is enormous. Normally, either an uncontrollable fusion reaction or an unbelievably strong external attraction-such as a passing star, a black hole, or a galaxy-is needed to break up such a megastructure.

NGC 3561A and NGC 3561B collided and produced huge star-shaped tails, feathers, and even "ejecta" that condense into tiny "new" galaxies. Hot young stars shine blue, where a rejuvenated star formation takes place. Forces, like those between galaxies, can tear stars, planets or even whole galaxies. Black holes remain. Adam Block / Mount Lemmon SkyCenter / University of Arizona

However, black holes are fundamentally different. Instead of distributing its mass over a volume, it is compressed into a singularity. For a non-rotating black hole, this is just a single, zero-dimensional point. (For rotating, it's not much better: an infinitely thin, one-dimensional ring.)

In addition, all the mass and energy content of a black hole is contained within an event horizon. Black holes are the only objects in the universe that contain an event horizon: a boundary where, if you sink into it, you can not escape. No acceleration, and therefore no force, no matter how strong, will ever be able to pull matter, mass, or energy out of the event horizon out into the Universe beyond.

Artist's impression of the active galactic nucleus. The supermassive black hole in the center of the accretion disk sends a narrow, high-energy matter beam perpendicular to the disk into space. A blazar some 4 billion light years away is the source of many of the highest energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Only matter from outside the black hole can leave the black hole. Matter from the event horizon can ever escape. DESY, Science Communication Lab

This may mean that black holes, if you make a hole by any means, only grow and can never be destroyed. In fact, they are growing, and relentlessly. We observe all kinds of phenomena in the universe, such as:

  • quasars,
  • blazars,
  • active galactic nuclei,
  • microquasars,
  • stars that emit no light of any kind,
  • and flaring, X-ray and radio emissions from galactic centers

which are believed to be all driven through black holes. By counting on their masses, we can know the physical sizes of their event horizons. Everything that collides with it, penetrates or even grazes, will inevitably fall into the interior. And by conserving energy, it must inevitably increase the mass of the black hole.

An illustration of an active black hole that accumulates matter and accelerates part of it outward in two perpendicular rays is an excellent descriptor of how quasars work. The matter that falls into a black hole becomes the growth of the black Hole in mass and size be responsible. Mark A. Garlick

This is a process that, on average, occurs for every black hole in the universe today. Material from other stars, cosmic dust, interstellar matter, gas clouds, or even the radiation and neutrinos left over from the Big Bang, can help. Intervening dark matter collides with the black hole and also increases its mass. All in all, black holes grow depending on the surrounding matter and energy density. the monster in the center of our Milky Way grows every 3,000 years by about one solar mass; The black hole at the center of the sombrero galaxy grows around one solar mass every two decades.

The bigger and heavier your black hole is, the faster it grows, depending on the other material it encounters. Over time, the growth rate will decline, but with a universe that is only 13.8 billion years old, they continue to grow amazingly.

When the horizons of an event are real, a star falling into a black hole would simply be swallowed up and leave no trace of encounter. This process, in which black holes grow because matter collides with their event horizon, can not be prevented. Mark A. Garlick / CfA

On the other hand, black holes do not only grow over time. There is also a process by which they evaporate: Hawking radiation. This was the subject of Ask Ethan's last week, due to the fact that the space near the event horizon of a black hole is heavily curved, but farther away. If you are far away as an observer, a significant amount of radiation will be emitted from the curved area near the event horizon, because the quantum vacuum will have different properties in different curved spatial areas. The end result is that black holes in all directions around it are thermal black body radiation (usually in the form of photons) that emit holes over a volume of space that usually includes about ten black-hole radii of the black's location. And maybe it is a bit unintentional, the weaker the black hole is, the faster it evaporates.

The event horizon of a black hole is a spherical or spherical region from which nothing, even light, can escape. Outside the event horizon, however, it is predicted that the black hole will emit radiation. Hawking's 1974 work was the first to demonstrate this, and it was arguably his greatest scientific achievement. NASA; Jörn Wilms (Tübingen) et al. ESA

Hawking radiation is an unbelievably slow process in which a black hole in the mass of our Sun would take 10 64 years to evaporate. that in the center of the Milky Way would require 10 87 years, and the most massive in the universe could last up to 10 100 years . In general, a simple formula that allows you to calculate the evaporation time for a black hole is the timescale for our sun and multiplied by:

(mass of the black hole / mass of the sun) 3 [19659007] means that Earth's black hole would survive 10 47 years; The mass of the Great Pyramid in Giza (~ 6 million tons) would last for about a thousand years. the mass of the Empire State Building would take about a month; the mass of an average person would take just under a picosecond. As your mass decreases, you evaporate faster.

The decay of a black hole by Hawking radiation should produce observable photon signatures over the lifetime. However, the evaporation rate and energy of Hawking radiation mean that there are explicit predictions at the final stage for the particles and antiparticles that are unique. A black hole of human mass would evaporate in just a picosecond. ortega-pictures / pixabay

In everything we know, the universe could contain black holes with an extremely wide range of masses. If it were born with light ones – anything under a billion tons – they would all have gone by today. There are no signs of black holes being heavier than those until they reach the holes formed by neutron neutron star fusions, which theoretically occur at about 2.5 solar masses. In addition, X-ray studies indicate the presence of black holes in the range of ~ 10-20 solar masses; LIGO showed us black holes between 8 and about 62 solar masses. and astronomy studies reveal the supermassive black holes found throughout the universe.

There are a variety of black holes that we know, but also a variety of studies that exclude black holes, which make up much of the dark matter of a large variety of regimes.

Dark matter limitations from primordial black holes. There is an overwhelming body of evidence that suggests that in the early Universe there is not a large population of black holes that make up our dark matter. Fig. 1 by Fabio Capela, Maxim Pshirkov and Peter Tinyakov (2013), via http://arxiv.org/pdf/1301.4984v3.pdf[19659002*HarewhitehollowwholesoleactualexistenceincludingimportanceRatealshawking-Radiationeffectsthatleaveofpowderforblackholewithinearearweightprojectsecondsabout10[194545]] -28 Joules Energy , Considering that:

  • Even a single photon from the Cosmic Microwave Background has about one million times this energy,
  • there are about 411 such photons (left over from the Big Bang) per cubic centimeter of space
  • and you are moving at the speed of light, which means that about ten trillion photons per second collide with every square inch of an object,

even an isolated black hole in the depths of the intergalactic space would have to wait until the end The Universe was about 10 years old (19459016) 20 years – more than a billion times younger than its present age – before the growth of the black hole falls below the rate of Hawking radiation. The nucleus of a large number of galaxies shows signs of a supermassive black hole in both infrared and X-ray observations.

The nucleus of the galaxy NGC 4261 is like that. If the matter falls into it, the black hole continues to grow. NASA / Hubble and ESA

But let's play the game. Suppose you lived in intergalactic space, away from all normal matter and dark matter, away from all cosmic rays and star beams and neutrinos, and only had the photons left over from the Big Bang to fight with. How big should your black hole be to balance the Hawking radiation (vaporization) and the photon absorption through your black hole (growth)?

The answer comes to about 10 23 kg or about the mass of the planet Mercury. If it were a black hole, mercury would have a diameter of about half a millimeter and would radiate about 100 trillion times as fast as a black hole with a solar mass. In today's universe, this is the mass that a black hole needs to absorb as much cosmic microwave background radiation as it would emit in Hawking radiation.

When a black hole shrinks in mass and radius, the Hawking radiation goes out, temperature and power get bigger and bigger. However, when the Hawking radiation rate exceeds the growth rate, no stars are burned in our cosmos. NASA

For a realistic black hole, you can not isolate it from the rest of the matter in the universe. Black holes, though ejected from galaxies, fly through the intergalactic medium, meeting cosmic rays, starlight, neutrinos, dark matter, and all sorts of other massive and massless particles. The cosmic microwave background is unavoidable, no matter where you are. When you are a black hole, you are constantly absorbing matter and energy, thereby growing in mass and size. Yes, they also emit energy in the form of Hawking radiation, but for all the black holes that really exist in our universe, it will take at least 100 quintillion years for the growth rate to fall below the radiation rate and much, much longer for it to finally volatilize.

Black holes eventually become unstable and vanish into nothing but radiation, but if we can not make a very low-mass hole, there will be nothing else in the universe


Send your Ask Ethan questions to gmail dot com!

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