If you want to send a message through a wormhole, you should be brief.
Under certain circumstances, a message could be passed through a theoretical wormhole connecting black holes in various universes, physicists have found in a new study. Unfortunately, their results show that only a tiny amount of information (measured in quantum bits or qubits) could be exchanged.
"In our particular setup we have found disappointing results in the sense that there are only on the order of one or two qubits or some information that you can send through the wormhole." Sam van Leuven, co-author of the new work and researcher at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, told Live Science:
If you send something into a Black Hole this would usually be the case in the Land in the middle, at an infinitely dense point known as a singularity, and never return to its former life. But if a black hole through a wormhole were connected to another black hole and the trajectory of the message was just right, it could theoretically cross and exit the other side of that wormhole ̵
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To achieve this, both universes and the associated black hole must have a certain type of physics and geometry to have. For example, the traversable wormhole would only be possible if spacetime had a negative curvature. That is, you can think of space-time as a giant saddle in which two creatures, when trying to walk in parallel, would actually move away from each other.
Scientists have known that this particular universe arrangement theoretically allows for passing information about wormholes, and they have previously made some estimates to determine how much information can be passed on in this way.
"We now know from [previous studies] that this process is analogous to quantum teleportation … but there are limits to how much information can be sent," said Aron Wall, a researcher at the University's Institute of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics of Cambridge, which was not involved in the new study. (In Quantum Teleportation information can be transmitted almost instantaneously over long distances using quantum entangled particles, meaning that their states are linked independently of the distance that separates them.)
In the new study Van Leuven and his colleagues studied the traversable wormhole using space-time geometry as described in Albert Einstein's Theory of General Theory of Relativity . The math used to describe the scenario was done in a two-dimensional universe for simplicity, but it should also apply to a 3D universe like our own.
The results showed that little information could be passed through the wormhole at one time – less than other methods had found. They also found that sending messages through the wormhole would alter the black holes. The sending black hole would increase in mass with each message sent and the receiving black hole would decrease in mass. With the first message, the receiving black hole would lose about 30% of its mass, and with subsequent news, the black hole would disappear. In addition, any subsequent message would lose size, so the message would eventually contain no information .
Van Leuven and other scientists continue to engage in a variety of constructions and rules that are similar and dissimilar to those of our own universe and may allow the transmission of additional information. At the present time, such wormholes and associated black holes are completely theoretical, but scientists believe that it is not completely impossible for them to be created or manipulated by any advanced civilization. "We're trying to generalize our setup to allow more information [to be transmitted] but that's still working," Van Leuven told Live Science. "But there will always be a limit, there will not be an infinite amount of information you can send without destroying the wormhole."
The study was submitted on July 29 in the Preprint Journal arXiv and posted online to the Journal of High Energy Physics.
Originally published on Live Science .